Cucumber - Getting Started With Java And Selenium

Cucumber is a tool that supports Behaviour-Driven Development(BDD). If you are very new to Behaviour-Driven Development read our BDD introduction first.

What is Behaviour-Driven Development(BDD)

BDD is a way for software groups to paintings that closes the space between commercial enterprise people and technical people by:

  • Encouraging collaboration throughout roles to construct a shared know-how of the problem to be solved.
  • Working in rapid, small iterations to increase comments and the go with the flow of value.
  • Producing device documentation that is robotically checked towards the system’s behavior.

What is Cucumber

Cucumber reads executable specs written in undeniable textual content and validates that the software program does what those specifications say. The specifications consist of more than one example or scenario.

Feature: Login Feature File
Scenario: Login scenario test for Gmail

Given navigate to Gmail page
When user logged in using the username as “userA” and password as “password”
Then the home page should be displayed

Each scenario is a list of steps for Cucumber to paintings through. Cucumber verifies that the software program conforms with the specification and generates a record indicating ✅ success or ❌ failure for each scenario.

For Cucumber to apprehend the scenarios, they have to follow some fundamental syntax rules, called Gherkin.

What is Gherkin

Gherkin is hard and fast of grammar policies that make simple text structured enough for Cucumber to understand. The scenario above is written in Gherkin.

Gherkin is the layout for cucumber specifications. It is a domain precise language which helps you to describe business behavior without the want to go into element of implementation. This text acts as documentation and skeleton of your automatic tests.

Gherkin generally user for two primary purposes:

  • Writing an automated test (BDD)
  • Documents user scenarios

Gherkin documents are stored in .feature file format.

Cucumber Installation

Cucumber is to be had for most mainstream programming languages. We recommend selecting an implementation for the same platform or programming language as the production code.

Download Cucumber from the following link: image1

In this blog we are using the Cucumber JVM with Maven in Eclipse IDE

Cucumber Project Setup

  • Create a New Maven Project: File -> New -> Others -> Maven -> Maven Project
  • Add below dependencies in pom.xml

  • Create a sample.feature file under src/test/resources.

    Feature: To test my cucumber test is running
    I want to run a sample feature file.
    Scenario: cucumber setup
    Given sample feature file is ready
    When I run the feature file
    Then run should be successful
  • Create a class under src/test/java which will implement all the steps.

    public class stepDefinition {
       @Given("^sample feature file is ready$")
       public void givenStatment(){
              System.out.println("Given statement executed successfully");
       @When("^I run the feature file$")
       public void whenStatement(){
              System.out.println("When statement execueted successfully");
       @Then("^run should be successful$")
       public void thenStatment(){
              System.out.println("Then statement executed successfully");
  • Create a JUnit runner to run the test.

    @Cucumber.Options(format={"pretty","html:reports/test-report"},tags= "@smokeTest")
    public class CucumberRunner {

    Provide the path of the report as given here. The reports will store in ‘test-report’ folder under project folder and “pretty” format specifies the type of report.

  • Junit Result and Test Report: The report when the cucumber test is successful. The Green bar in Junit describes the test is passed. Similarly, Red bar describes that test has failed.


Cucumber Selenium WebDriver Integration

Cucumber framework may be used to test the web-based applications in conjunction with** Selenium WebDriver. The check instances are written in easy feature files which are easily understandable by the **managers, non-technical stakeholders and business analysts. If you are the user of maven then you have to add dependencies for Cucumber and WebDriver.

So right here is the sample test case we have applied the use of Cucumber and WebDriver. As given below, the situation in the feature record is self-explanatory.

Feature: Login Feature File
Scenario: Login scenario test for Gmail

Given navigate to Gmail page
When user logged in using the username as “userA” and password as “password”
Then the home page should be displayed
public class stepDefinition {
WebDriver dr;
@Given("^navigate to gmail page$")
public void navigate(){
       dr=new FirefoxDriver();
@When ("^user logged in using username as \"(.*)\" and password as \"(.*)\"$")
public void login(String username,String password){
       dr.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(20, TimeUnit.SECONDS);
@Then("^home page should be displayed$")
public void verifySuccessful(){
      String expectedText="Gmail";
      String actualText=         dr.findElement(By.xpath("//*[@id='gbq1']/div/a/span")).getText();
      Assert.assertTrue("Login not successful",expectedText.equals(actualText));
  • Given statement initializes the browser and navigates to the page.
  • When statement logs into the application using the username as “userA” and password as “password”. Both the values ‘username’ and ‘password’ are passed from feature file and both the values to be used in the same order.
  • Then Statement only validates the conditions after logging into the application.


In this Cucumber Selenium Java Integration Blog, we have covered most ideas about Cucumber functions and its usage alongside WebDriver.

This reduces the complexity of code which is written to design the traditional frameworks like Keyword Driven and Hybrid Framework. Cucumber is used in most of the project where agile methodology is used as Behavior Driven Development is an Agile Software practice..

Published 29 May 2020

Written by Kuldeep Chhipa

Quality Assurance Specialist currently runs the QA squad as a team Contributor, and loves Automation. I help business owners to grow their businesses online.

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